Robert L. Spencer, Ph.D.

Behavioral Neuroscience Program and Center for Neuroscience
Department of Psychology
University of Colorado at Boulder

Office: Muenzinger Bldg, Room D465B
Phone: (303)-492-0854

Research Interests

  • Neurobiology of psychological stress and stress adaptation
  • Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation
  • Stress and learning-dependent hippocampal immediate early gene expression patterns
  • Circadian rhythms and the role of clock gene expression in the HPA axis

Teaching related web-sites

Refereed Journal Articles (in reverse chronological order)

  1. Weinberg, MS, Bhatt, AP, Girotti, M, Masini, CV, Day, HEW, Campeau, S and RL Spencer. Repeated ferret odor exposure induces different temporal patterns of same-stressor habituation and novel-stressor sensitization in both HPA-axis activity and forebrain c-fos expression in the rat. Endocrinology, in press.
  2. VanElzakker, M, Fevurly, RD, Breindel, T and RL Spencer. Environmental novelty is associated with a selective increase in Fos expression in the output elements of the hippocampal formation and the perirhinal cortex. Learning and Memory, in press.
  3. Pace, TWW, Gaylord, RI, Jarvis, E, Girotti, M and RL Spencer. Differential glucocorticoid effects on stress-induced gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and ACTH secretion. Stress, in press.
  4. Parker, CC, Ponicsan, H, Spencer, RL, Holmes A and TE Johnson. Restraint stress and exogenous corticosterone differentially alter sensitivity to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol in ILS and ISS mice. Alcohol, in press.
  5. Weinberg, MS, Girotti, M and RL Spencer. Restraint-induced fra-2 and c-fos expression in the rat forebrain: relationship to stress duration. Neuroscience, 150: 478-486, 2007.[pdf]
  6. Brown, DA, Johnson, MS, Armstrong, CJ, Lynch, JM, Caruso, NM, Ehlers, LB, Fleshner, M, Spencer, RL and RL Moore. Short-term treadmill running in the rat: what kind of stressor is it? J Applied Physiology, 103:1979-1985, 2007.
  7. Girotti, M, Weinberg, MS and RL Spencer. Differential responses of HPA axis immediate early genes to corticosterone and circadian drive. Endocrinology, 148: 2542-2552, 2007.[pdf]
  8. Francis, AB, Pace, TWW, Ginsberg, AB, Rubin, BA and RL Spencer. Limited brain diffusion of the glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU28362 following i.c.v. administration: implications for i.c.v. drug delivery and glucocorticoid negative feedback in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Neuroscience, 141: 1503-1515, 2006.[pdf]
  9. Der-Avakian A, Bland ST, Schmid MJ, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Maier SF (2006) The role of glucocorticoids in the uncontrollable stress-induced potentiation of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine and conditioned place preference responses to morphine. Psychoneuroendocrinology,31: 653-663, 2006.
  10. Girotti, M, Pace, TWW, Gaylord, RI, Rubin, BA, Herman, JP and RL Spencer. Habituation to repeated restraint stress is associated with lack of stress-induced c-fos expression in primary sensory processing areas of the rat brain. Neuroscience, 138:1067-1081, 2006.[pdf]
  11. Ginsberg, AB, Frank, MG, Francis, AB, Rubin, BA, O’Connor, KA and RL Spencer. Specific and time-dependent effects of glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU28362 on stress-induced POMC hnRNA, c-fos mRNA and zif268 mRNA in the pituitary. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 18: 129-138, 2006. [pdf]
  12. *Pace, TWW, *Gaylord, R, Topczewski, F, Girotti, M, Rubin, B and RL Spencer. Immediate early gene induction in hippocampus and cortex as a result of novel experience is not directly related to the stressfulness of that experience. European Journal of Neuroscience, 22:1679-1690, 2005. *T.W.W.P and R.G contributed equally to this work. [pdf]
  13. Pace, TWW and RL Spencer. Disruption of mineralocorticoid receptor function increases corticosterone responding to a mild, but not moderate, psychological stressor. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 288: 1082-1088, 2005. [pdf]
  14. Bland, S.T., Schmid, M.J., Der-Avakian, A., Watkins, L.R., Spencer, R.L. and S.F. Maier. Expression of c-fos and BDNF mRNA in subregions of the prefrontal cortex of male and female rats after acute uncontrollable stress. Brain Research, 1051:90-99, 2005. [pdf]
  15. Der-Avakian, A., Will, M.J., Bland, S. T., Deak, T., Nguyen, K. T., Schmid, M. J., Spencer, R. L., Watkins, L. R., & Maier, S. F. Surgical and pharmacological suppression of glucocorticoids prevents the enhancement of morphine conditioned place preference by uncontrollable stress in rats. Psychopharmacology, 179:409-417, 2005. [pdf]
  16. RD Fevurly and RL Spencer. Fos expression is selectively and differentially regulated by endogenous glucocorticoids in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and dentate gyrus. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 16:970-979,2004. [pdf]
  17. O’Connor, K. A., Ginsberg, A. B., Maksimova, E., Wiesler-Frank, J. L., Johnson, J. D., Spencer, R. L., Campeau, S., Watkins, R. L., & Maier, S. F. Stress-induced sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is associated with alterations of hypothalamic and pituitary gene expression. Neuroendocrinology, 80:252-263, 2004. [pdf]
  18. A.B. Ginsberg, S. Campeau, H.A. Day, R.L. Spencer. Acute glucocorticoid pretreatment suppresses stress-induced HPA axis hormone secretion and expression of CRH hnRNA, but not c-fos mRNA or Fos protein in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 15:1075-1083, 2003. [pdf]
  19. K.A. O’Connor, J.D. Johnson, S.E. Hammack, L.M. Brooks, R.L. Spencer, L.R. Watkins and S.F. Maier. Inescapable shock induces resistance to the effects of dexamethasone. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28: 481–500, 2003. [pdf]
  20. Kalman, B.A. and Spencer, R. L. Rapid corticosteroid dependent regulation of mineralocorticoid receptor protein expression in rat brain. Endocrinology, 143: 4184-4195, 2002. [pdf]
  21. Murphy, E.K., Spencer, R.L.,Sipe, K.J. and Herman, J.P.. Nuclear glucocorticoid receptor deficiency in aged rat hippocampus. Endocrinology, 143: 1362-1370, 2002. [pdf]
  22. Beane, M.L., Cole, M.A., Spencer, R.L. and Rudy, J.W. Neonatal handling enhances contextual fear conditioning and alters corticosterone stress responses in young rats. Hormones and Behavior, 41: 33-40, 2002. [pdf]
  23. Johnson, J.D., O'Connor, K.A., Deak, T., Spencer, R.L., Watkins, L.R. and Maier, S.F. Prior stressor exposure primes the HPA axis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27: 353-365, 2002. [pdf]
  24. Pace, T.W., Cole, M.A., Ward, G., Kalman, B.A. and Spencer, R.L. Acute exposure to a novel stressor enhances the corticosterone response habituation to restraint in rats. Stress, 4: 319-331, 2001.
  25. Cole M.A., Kalman, B.A., Pace, T.W.W., Topczewski, R., Lowrey, M.J., and Spencer, R.L. Selective blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor impairs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis expression of habituation. J Neuroendocrinology, 12, 1034-1042, 2000. [pdf]
  26. Moraska, A., Deak, T., Spencer, R.L., Roth, D. and Fleshner, M. Treadmill running produces both positive and negative physiological adaptations in Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol, 279, R1321-R1329, 2000.
  27. Spencer, R.L., Kalman, B.A., Cotter, C.S. and Deak, T. Discrimination between changes in glucocorticoid receptor expression and activation in rat brain using western blot analysis. Brain Research, 868, 275-286, 2000. [pdf]
  28. Cole, M.A., Kim, P.J., Kalman, B.A., and Spencer, R.L. Dexamethasone suppression of corticosteroid secretion: evaluation of the site of action by receptor measures and function studies. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25, 151-167, 2000. [pdf]
  29. Herman, J.P., Watson, S.J., and Spencer, R.L. Defense of adrenocorticosteroid receptor expression in rat hippocampus: effects of stress and strain. Endocrinology, 140, 3981-3991, 1999. [pdf]
  30. Deak, T., Nguyen, K.T., Cotter, C.S., Fleshner, M., Watkins, L.R., Maier, S.F., and Spencer R.L. Long term changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor occupancy following exposure to an acute stressor. Brain Research, 847, 211-220, 1999. [pdf]
  31. Deak, T., Nguyen, K.T., Ehrlich, A.L., Watkins, L.R., Spencer, R.L., Maier, S.F., Licinio, J., Wong, M-L., Chrousos, G.P., Webster, E. and Gold, P.W. The impact of the nonpeptide CRH antagonist Antalarmin on behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. Endocrinology, 140, 79-86, 1999. [pdf]
  32. Kim, P.J., Cole, M.A., Kalman, B.A. and Spencer, R.L. Evaluation of RU28318 and RU40555 as selective mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, respectively: receptor measures and functional studies. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 67, 213-222, 1998. [pdf]
  33. Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Pearce, B.D., Pisell, T.L., Azrieli, Y., Tanapat, P., Moday, H., Rhee, R. and McEwen, B.S. Glucocorticoid receptors are differentially expressed in the cells and tissues of the immune system. Cellular Immunology, 186, 45-54, 1998.
  34. Herman, J.P. and Spencer, R.L. Regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene transcription and protein expression in vivo. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 7462-7473, 1998.
  35. Spencer, R.L., Kim, P.J., Kalman, B.A. and Cole, M.A. Evidence for mineralocorticoid receptor facilitation of glucocorticoid receptor dependent regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Endocrinology, 139, 2718-2726, 1998. [pdf]
  36. Ronchi, E., Spencer, R.L., Krey, L.C. and McEwen, B.S. Effects of photoperiod on brain corticosteroid receptors and the stress response in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Brain Research, 780, 348-351, 1998.
  37. Galea, L.A.M., McEwen, B.S., Tanapat, P., Deak, T., Spencer, R.L. and Dhabhar, F.S. Sex differences in dendritic atrophy of CA3 pyramidal neurons in response to chronic restraint stress. Neuroscience, 81, 689-698, 1997.
  38. Deak, T., Meriwether, J.L., Fleshner, M., Spencer, R.L., Abouhamze, A., Moldawer, L.L., Grahn, R.E., Watkins, L.R.,and Maier, S.F. Evidence that brief stress may induce the acute phase response in rats. Am J Physiol, 273, R1998-R2004, 1997.
  39. Spencer, R.L., Moday, H.J., and Miller, A.H. Maintenance of basal ACTH levels by corticosterone and RU28362, but not aldosterone: relationship to available type I and type II corticosteroid receptor levels in brain and pituitary. Stress, 2, 51-64, 1997.
  40. Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Pearce, B.D., Pisell, T.L., Tanapat, P., Leung, J.J., Dhabhar, F.S., McEwen, B.S. and Biron, C.A. 1996 Curt P. Richter Award. Effects of viral infection on corticosterone secretion and glucocorticoid receptor binding in immune tissues. Psychoneuroendo, 22, 455-474, 1997.
  41. Kalman, B.A., Kim, P.J., Cole, M.A., Chi, M.S. and Spencer, R.L. Diazepam attenuation of restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels is enhanced by prior exposure to repeated restraint. Psychoneuroendo, 22, 349-360, 1997.
  42. Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Imparied adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to chronic ethanol stress in aged rats. Neuroendocrinology, 65, 353-359, 1997.
  43. Dhabhar, F.S., McEwen, B.S. and Spencer, R.L. Adaptation to prolonged or repeated stress—comparison between rat strains showing intrinsic differences in reactivity to acute stress. Neuroendocrinology, 65, 360-368, 1997.
  44. McEwen, B.S., Biron, C.A., Brunson, K.W., Bulloch, K., Chambers, W.H., Dhabhar, F.S., Goldfarb, R.H., Kitson, R.P., Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L. and J.Weiss. The role of adrenocorticoids as modulators of immune function in health and disease: neural, endocrine, and immune interactions. Brain Res Rev, 23, 79-133, 1997.
  45. Dhabhar, F.S., Miller, A.H., McEwen, B.S. and Spencer, R.L. Stress-induced changes in blood leukocyte distribution: role of adrenal steroid hormones. J Immunol, 157, 1638-1644, 1996.
  46. Spencer, R.L., Miller, A.H., Moday, H., McEwen, B.S., Blanchard, R.J., Blanchard, D.C. and Sakai, R.R. Chronic social stress produced reductions in available splenic type II corticosteroid receptor binding and plasma corticosteroid binding globulin levels. Psychoneuroendo, 21, 95-109, 1996.
  47. Fleshner, M., Spencer, R.L., Deak, T., Watkins, L.R. and Maier, S.F. A long-term increase in basal levels of corticosterone and a decrease in corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) following acute stressor exposure. Endocrinology, 136, 5336-5342, 1995.
  48. Dhabhar, F.S., Miller, A.H., McEwen, B.S. and Spencer, R.L. Effects of stress on immune cell distribution—dynamics and hormonal mechanisms. J Immunol, 154, 5511-5527, 1995.
  49. O'Steen, W.K., Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Analysis of severe photoreceptor loss and Morris water maze performance in aged rats. Behav Brain Res, 68, 151-158, 1995.
  50. Spencer, R.L., O'Steen, W.K. and McEwen, B.S. Water maze performance of aged Sprague-Dawley rats in relation to retinal morphological measures. Behav Brain Res, 68, 139-150, 1995.
  51. Orange, J.S., Salazar-Mather, T.P., Opal, S.M., Spencer, R.L., Miller, A.H., McEwen, B.S. and Biron, C.A. Mechanisms of Il-12-mediated toxicities during experimental viral infections: role of TNF and glucocorticoids. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 181, 901-914, 1995.
  52. Dhabhar, F.S., Miller, A.H., McEwen, B.S. and Spencer, R.L. Differential activation of adrenal-steroid receptors in neural and immune tissues of Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, and Lewis Rats. J. Neuroimmunology, 56, 77-90, 1995.
  53. Blanchard, D.C., Spencer, R.L., Weiss, S.M., Blanchard, R.J., McEwen, B.S. and Sakai, R.R. Visible burrow system as a model of chronic social stress: behavioral and neuroendocrine correlates. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 20, 117-134, 1995.
  54. Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Hassett, J., Kim, C., Rhee, R., Cuirea, D., Dhabhar, F., McEwen, B. and Stein, M. Effects of selective type I and II adrenal steroid receptor agonists on immune cell distribution. Endocrinology, 135, 1934-1944, 1994.
  55. McEwen, B.S., Cameron, H., Chao, H.M., Gould, E., Luine, V., Magarinos, A.M., Pavlides, C., Spencer, R.L., Watanabe, Y. and Woolley, C. Resolving a mystery: progress in understanding the function of adrenal steroid receptors in hippocampus. Progress in Brain Research, 100, 149-155, 1994.
  56. Dhabhar, F.S., Miller, A.H., Stein, M., McEwen, B.S. and Spencer, R.L. Diurnal and acute stress-induced changes in distribution of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 8, 66-79, 1994.
  57. Chao, H.M., Spencer, R.L., Frankfurt, M and McEwen, B.S. The effects of aging and hormonal manipulations on amyloid precursor protein APP695 mRNA expression in the rat hippocampus. J Neuroendo, 6, 517-521, 1994.
  58. Akompong, T., Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Cytosolic phospholipase C activity: II. relationship to concanavalin A-induced phosphatidylinositol-turnover in splenocytes. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 56,409-417, 1994.
  59. Akompong, T., Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Cytosolic phospholipase C activity: I. evidence for coupling with cytosolic guanine nucleotide-binding protein, Gi-alpha. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 56,397-408, 1994.
  60. Akompong, T., Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Glucocorticoids inhibit soluble phospholipase C activity and cytosolic Gi a immunoreactivity in spleen. Endocrinology, 133, 1963-1970, 1993.
  61. Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Husain, A., Rhee, R., McEwen, B.S., and Stein, M. Differential expression of type I adrenal steroid receptors in immune tissues is associated with tissue specific regulation of type II receptors by aldosterone. Endocrinology, 133, 2133-2140, 1993.
  62. Spencer, R.L., Miller, A.H., Moday, H., Stein, M. and McEwen, B.S. Diurnal differences in basal and acute stress levels of type I and type II adrenal steroid receptor activation in neural and immune tissues. Endocrinology, 133, 1941-1950, 1993.
  63. Dhabhar, F.S., McEwen, B.S. and Spencer, R.L. Stress response, adrenal steroid receptor levels and corticosteroid-binding globulin — a comparison between Sprague-Dawley, Fischer 344 and Lewis rats. Brain Research, 616, 89-98, 1993.
  64. Luine, V.N., Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Effects of chronic corticosterone ingestion on spatial memory performance and hippocampal serotonergic function. Brain Research, 616, 65-70, 1993.
  65. Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Pulera, M., Kang, S., McEwen, B.S. and Stein, M. Adrenal steroid receptor activation in rat brain and pituitary following dexamethasone: implications for the dexamethasone suppression test. Biological Psychiatry, 32, 850-869, 1992.
  66. Chao, H.M., Spencer, R.L., Sakai, R.R. and McEwen, B.S. The expression of growth- associated protein GAP-43 mRNA in the rat hippocampus in response to adrenalectomy and aging. Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences, 3, 529-535, 1992.
  67. Woolley, C.S., Gould, E., Sakai, R.R., Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Effects of aldosterone or RU28362 treatment on adrenalectomy-induced cell death in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat. Brain Research, 554, 312-315, 1991.
  68. Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Kim, C., McEwen, B.S. and Stein, M. Adrenal steroid receptor activation in vivo and immune function. American Journal of Physiology, 261, E126-E131, 1991.
  69. Spencer, R.L., Miller, A.H., Stein, M. and McEwen, B.S. Corticosterone regulation of type I and type II adrenal steroid receptors in brain, pituitary, and immune tissue. Brain Research, 549, 236-246, 1991.
  70. Owen, T.L., Spencer, R.L. and Duckles, S.P. Effect of age on cold acclimation in rats: metabolic and behavioral responses. American Journal of Physiology, 260, R284-R289, 1991.
  71. Young, E.A., Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Changes at multiple levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis following repeated electrically induced seizures. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 15, 165-172, 1990.
  72. Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to chronic ethanol stress. Neuroendocrinology, 52, 481-489, 1990.
  73. Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Stein, M. and McEwen, B.S. Adrenal steroid receptor binding in spleen and thymus after stress or dexamethasone. American Journal of Physiology, 259, E405-E412, 1990.
  74. Gannon, M.N., Spencer, R.L., Lundbland, J.R., McEwen, B.S. and Roberts, J.L. Pharmacological characteristics of type II glucocorticoid binding sites in AtT20 pituitary cell culture. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry, 36, 83-88, 1990.
  75. Spencer, R.L., Young, E., Choo, P. and McEwen, B.S. Adrenal steroid type I and type II receptor binding: estimates of in vivo receptor number, occupancy, and activation with varying level of steroid. Brain Research, 514, 37-48, 1990.
  76. Spencer, R.L. and Burks, T.F. Alteration of thermoregulatory set point with opioid agonists. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 252, 696-705, 1990.
  77. Spencer, R.L., Hruby, V.J. and Burks, T.F. Body temperature response profiles for selective mu, delta, and kappa opioid agonists in restrained and unrestrained rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 246, 92-101, 1988.
  78. Spencer, R.L., Deupree, D., Hsiao, S., Mosberg, H.I., Hruby, V., Burks, T.F. and Porreca, F. Centrally-administered opioid selective agonists inhibit drinking in the rat. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 25, 77-82, 1986.
  79. Marques, P.R., Spencer, R.L. Burks, T.F. and McDougal, J.N. Behavioral thermoregulation, core temperature, and motor activity: simultaneous quantitative assessment in rats after dopamine and prostaglandin E1. Behavioral Neuroscience, 98, 858-867, 1984.
  80. Hsiao, S. and Spencer, R.L. Analysis of licking responses in rats: effects of cholecystokinin and bombesin. Behavioral Neuroscience, 97, 234-245, 1983.

Book Chapters, Review Articles and Published Lectures

  1. Spencer, R.L. and Bland, S. Hippocampal neurons. In Encyclopedia of Stress, 2nd edition, ed. by Frink. Elsevier, London, 2007.[pdf]
  2. Spencer, R.L., Kalman, B.A. and Dhabhar, F.S. Role of endogenous glucocorticoids in immune system function: regulation as well as counterregulation. In Handbook of Physiology. Coping with the Environment: Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms, ed. by B.S. McEwen, Section 7, Volume IV, pp.381-424, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001.
  3. Spencer, R.L. and Hutchison, K.E. Alcohol, aging and the stress response. Alcohol Research & Health, 23, 272-283, 2000.
  4. Miller, A.H. and Spencer, R.L. Immune system and central nervous system interactions. In Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry/VI, 6th edition, ed. by H.I. Kaplan and B.J. Sadock, pp. 112-127, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1995.
  5. McEwen, B.S., Cameron, H., Chao, H.M., Gould, E., Luine, V., Magarinos, A.M., Pavlides, C., Spencer, R.L., Watanabe, Y., Woolley, C. Resolving a mystery: progress in understanding the function of adrenal steroid receptors in hippocampus. In Progress in Brain Research, vol. 100, pp. 149-155, edited by Floyd E. Bloom, Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1994.
  6. Spencer, R. Exploring brain interactions with the immune system: corticosteroids and their receptors. Advances, 10, 33-40, 1994. [Transcription of lecture delivered to the Boston Behavioral Immunology Study Group, May 10, 1994]
  7. Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., McEwen, B.S. and Stein, M. Depression, adrenal steroids, and the immune system. Ann Med, 25, 481-487, 1993.
  8. McEwen, B.S., Sakai, R.R. and Spencer, R.L. Adrenal steroid effects on the brain: versatile hormones with good and bad effects. In Hormonally Induced Changes in Mind and Brain, ed. by J. Schulkin, pp. 157-189, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, 1993.
  9. McEwen, B.S., Chao, H.M., Gannon, M.N. and Spencer, R.L. Characterization of brain adrenal steroid receptors and their involvement in the stress response. In Stress: Neurobiology and Neuroendocrinology, ed. by M. Brown, G.F. Koob and C. Rivier, pp. 275-292, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1991.
  10. Spencer, R.L., Miller, A.H., Sakai, R. and McEwen, B.S. Neuroendocrinology of stress and aging. In Aging of the Brain: Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Brain Aging and Alzheimer's Disease, ed. by T. Nagatsu & O. Hayaishi, pp. 37-51, Japan Scientific Societies Press and Karger, Tokyo, 1990.
  11. Spencer, R.L., Miller, A.H., Young, E.A. and McEwen, B.S. Stress induced changes in the brain: implications for aging. In Stress and the Aging Brain, ed. by G. Nappi et al, pp. 17-29, Raven Press, 1990.
  12. McEwen, B., Chao, H., Spencer, R., Brinton, R., MacIsaac, L., and Harrelson, A. Corticosteroid receptors in brain: relationship of receptors to effects in stress and aging. In the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Revisited, ed. by W.F. Ganong, M.F., Dallman and J.L. Roberts, pp.394-401, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1987.