- Neurobiology of psychological stress and stress adaptation
- Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation
- Stress and learning-dependent hippocampal immediate early gene expression
- Circadian rhythms and the role of clock gene expression in the
Teaching related web-sites
Refereed Journal Articles (in reverse chronological order)
- Weinberg, MS, Bhatt, AP, Girotti, M, Masini, CV, Day, HEW, Campeau,
S and RL Spencer. Repeated ferret odor exposure induces different temporal
patterns of same-stressor habituation and novel-stressor sensitization
in both HPA-axis activity and forebrain c-fos expression in the rat.
Endocrinology, in press.
- VanElzakker, M, Fevurly, RD, Breindel, T and RL Spencer. Environmental
novelty is associated with a selective increase in Fos expression in
the output elements of the hippocampal formation and the perirhinal
cortex. Learning and Memory, in press.
- Pace, TWW, Gaylord, RI, Jarvis, E, Girotti, M and RL Spencer. Differential
glucocorticoid effects on stress-induced gene expression in the paraventricular
nucleus of the hypothalamus and ACTH secretion. Stress, in press.
- Parker, CC, Ponicsan, H, Spencer, RL, Holmes A and TE Johnson. Restraint
stress and exogenous corticosterone differentially alter sensitivity
to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol in ILS and ISS mice. Alcohol,
- Weinberg, MS, Girotti, M and RL Spencer. Restraint-induced fra-2
and c-fos expression in the rat forebrain: relationship to stress duration.
Neuroscience, 150: 478-486, 2007.[pdf]
- Brown, DA, Johnson, MS, Armstrong, CJ, Lynch, JM, Caruso, NM, Ehlers,
LB, Fleshner, M, Spencer, RL and RL Moore. Short-term treadmill running
in the rat: what kind of stressor is it? J Applied Physiology, 103:1979-1985,
- Girotti, M, Weinberg, MS and RL Spencer. Differential responses of
HPA axis immediate early genes to corticosterone and circadian drive.
Endocrinology, 148: 2542-2552, 2007.[pdf]
- Francis, AB, Pace, TWW, Ginsberg, AB, Rubin, BA and RL Spencer. Limited
brain diffusion of the glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU28362 following
i.c.v. administration: implications for i.c.v. drug delivery and glucocorticoid
negative feedback in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Neuroscience,
141: 1503-1515, 2006.[pdf]
- Der-Avakian A, Bland ST, Schmid MJ, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Maier
SF (2006) The role of glucocorticoids in the uncontrollable stress-induced
potentiation of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine and conditioned place
preference responses to morphine. Psychoneuroendocrinology,31: 653-663,
- Girotti, M, Pace, TWW, Gaylord, RI, Rubin, BA, Herman, JP and RL Spencer.
Habituation to repeated restraint stress is associated with lack of
stress-induced c-fos expression in primary sensory processing areas
of the rat brain. Neuroscience, 138:1067-1081, 2006.[pdf]
- Ginsberg, AB, Frank, MG, Francis, AB, Rubin, BA, O’Connor, KA
and RL Spencer. Specific and time-dependent effects of glucocorticoid
receptor agonist RU28362 on stress-induced POMC hnRNA, c-fos mRNA and
zif268 mRNA in the pituitary. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 18: 129-138,
- *Pace, TWW, *Gaylord, R, Topczewski, F, Girotti, M, Rubin, B and RL
Spencer. Immediate early gene induction in hippocampus and cortex as
a result of novel experience is not directly related to the stressfulness
of that experience. European Journal of Neuroscience, 22:1679-1690,
2005. *T.W.W.P and R.G contributed equally to this work. [pdf]
- Pace, TWW and RL Spencer. Disruption of mineralocorticoid receptor
function increases corticosterone responding to a mild, but not moderate,
psychological stressor. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology
and Metabolism, 288: 1082-1088, 2005. [pdf]
- Bland, S.T., Schmid, M.J., Der-Avakian, A., Watkins, L.R., Spencer,
R.L. and S.F. Maier. Expression of c-fos and BDNF mRNA in subregions
of the prefrontal cortex of male and female rats after acute uncontrollable
stress. Brain Research, 1051:90-99, 2005. [pdf]
- Der-Avakian, A., Will, M.J., Bland, S. T., Deak, T., Nguyen, K. T.,
Schmid, M. J., Spencer, R. L., Watkins, L. R., & Maier, S. F. Surgical
and pharmacological suppression of glucocorticoids prevents the enhancement
of morphine conditioned place preference by uncontrollable stress in
rats. Psychopharmacology, 179:409-417, 2005. [pdf]
- RD Fevurly and RL Spencer. Fos expression is selectively and differentially
regulated by endogenous glucocorticoids in the paraventricular nucleus
of the hypothalamus and dentate gyrus. Journal of Neuroendocrinology,
- O’Connor, K. A., Ginsberg, A. B., Maksimova, E., Wiesler-Frank,
J. L., Johnson, J. D., Spencer, R. L., Campeau, S., Watkins, R. L.,
& Maier, S. F. Stress-induced sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
axis is associated with alterations of hypothalamic and pituitary gene
expression. Neuroendocrinology, 80:252-263, 2004. [pdf]
- A.B. Ginsberg, S. Campeau, H.A. Day, R.L. Spencer. Acute glucocorticoid
pretreatment suppresses stress-induced HPA axis hormone secretion and
expression of CRH hnRNA, but not c-fos mRNA or Fos protein in the paraventricular
nucleus of the hypothalamus. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 15:1075-1083,
- K.A. O’Connor, J.D. Johnson, S.E. Hammack, L.M. Brooks, R.L.
Spencer, L.R. Watkins and S.F. Maier. Inescapable shock induces resistance
to the effects of dexamethasone. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28: 481–500,
- Kalman, B.A. and Spencer, R. L. Rapid corticosteroid dependent regulation
of mineralocorticoid receptor protein expression in rat brain. Endocrinology,
143: 4184-4195, 2002. [pdf]
- Murphy, E.K., Spencer, R.L.,Sipe, K.J. and Herman, J.P.. Nuclear glucocorticoid
receptor deficiency in aged rat hippocampus. Endocrinology, 143: 1362-1370,
- Beane, M.L., Cole, M.A., Spencer, R.L. and Rudy, J.W. Neonatal handling
enhances contextual fear conditioning and alters corticosterone stress
responses in young rats. Hormones and Behavior, 41: 33-40, 2002. [pdf]
- Johnson, J.D., O'Connor, K.A., Deak, T., Spencer, R.L., Watkins, L.R.
and Maier, S.F. Prior stressor exposure primes the HPA axis. Psychoneuroendocrinology,
27: 353-365, 2002. [pdf]
- Pace, T.W., Cole, M.A., Ward, G., Kalman, B.A. and Spencer, R.L. Acute
exposure to a novel stressor enhances the corticosterone response habituation
to restraint in rats. Stress, 4: 319-331, 2001.
- Cole M.A., Kalman, B.A., Pace, T.W.W., Topczewski, R., Lowrey, M.J.,
and Spencer, R.L. Selective blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor
impairs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis expression of habituation.
J Neuroendocrinology, 12, 1034-1042, 2000. [pdf]
- Moraska, A., Deak, T., Spencer, R.L., Roth, D. and Fleshner, M. Treadmill
running produces both positive and negative physiological adaptations
in Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol,
279, R1321-R1329, 2000.
- Spencer, R.L., Kalman, B.A., Cotter, C.S. and Deak, T. Discrimination
between changes in glucocorticoid receptor expression and activation
in rat brain using western blot analysis. Brain Research, 868, 275-286,
- Cole, M.A., Kim, P.J., Kalman, B.A., and Spencer, R.L. Dexamethasone
suppression of corticosteroid secretion: evaluation of the site of action
by receptor measures and function studies. Psychoneuroendocrinology,
25, 151-167, 2000. [pdf]
- Herman, J.P., Watson, S.J., and Spencer, R.L. Defense of adrenocorticosteroid
receptor expression in rat hippocampus: effects of stress and strain.
Endocrinology, 140, 3981-3991, 1999. [pdf]
- Deak, T., Nguyen, K.T., Cotter, C.S., Fleshner, M., Watkins, L.R.,
Maier, S.F., and Spencer R.L. Long term changes in mineralocorticoid
and glucocorticoid receptor occupancy following exposure to an acute
stressor. Brain Research, 847, 211-220, 1999. [pdf]
- Deak, T., Nguyen, K.T., Ehrlich, A.L., Watkins, L.R., Spencer, R.L.,
Maier, S.F., Licinio, J., Wong, M-L., Chrousos, G.P., Webster, E. and
Gold, P.W. The impact of the nonpeptide CRH antagonist Antalarmin on
behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. Endocrinology, 140, 79-86,
- Kim, P.J., Cole, M.A., Kalman, B.A. and Spencer, R.L. Evaluation of
RU28318 and RU40555 as selective mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid
receptor antagonists, respectively: receptor measures and functional
studies. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 67,
213-222, 1998. [pdf]
- Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Pearce, B.D., Pisell, T.L., Azrieli,
Y., Tanapat, P., Moday, H., Rhee, R. and McEwen, B.S. Glucocorticoid
receptors are differentially expressed in the cells and tissues of the
immune system. Cellular Immunology, 186, 45-54, 1998.
- Herman, J.P. and Spencer, R.L. Regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid
receptor gene transcription and protein expression in vivo. Journal
of Neuroscience, 18, 7462-7473, 1998.
- Spencer, R.L., Kim, P.J., Kalman, B.A. and Cole, M.A. Evidence for
mineralocorticoid receptor facilitation of glucocorticoid receptor dependent
regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Endocrinology,
139, 2718-2726, 1998. [pdf]
- Ronchi, E., Spencer, R.L., Krey, L.C. and McEwen, B.S. Effects of
photoperiod on brain corticosteroid receptors and the stress response
in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Brain Research, 780, 348-351,
- Galea, L.A.M., McEwen, B.S., Tanapat, P., Deak, T., Spencer, R.L.
and Dhabhar, F.S. Sex differences in dendritic atrophy of CA3 pyramidal
neurons in response to chronic restraint stress. Neuroscience, 81, 689-698,
- Deak, T., Meriwether, J.L., Fleshner, M., Spencer, R.L., Abouhamze,
A., Moldawer, L.L., Grahn, R.E., Watkins, L.R.,and Maier, S.F. Evidence
that brief stress may induce the acute phase response in rats. Am J
Physiol, 273, R1998-R2004, 1997.
- Spencer, R.L., Moday, H.J., and Miller, A.H. Maintenance of basal
ACTH levels by corticosterone and RU28362, but not aldosterone: relationship
to available type I and type II corticosteroid receptor levels in brain
and pituitary. Stress, 2, 51-64, 1997.
- Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Pearce, B.D., Pisell, T.L., Tanapat,
P., Leung, J.J., Dhabhar, F.S., McEwen, B.S. and Biron, C.A. 1996 Curt
P. Richter Award. Effects of viral infection on corticosterone secretion
and glucocorticoid receptor binding in immune tissues. Psychoneuroendo,
22, 455-474, 1997.
- Kalman, B.A., Kim, P.J., Cole, M.A., Chi, M.S. and Spencer, R.L. Diazepam
attenuation of restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels is enhanced
by prior exposure to repeated restraint. Psychoneuroendo, 22, 349-360,
- Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Imparied adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
axis to chronic ethanol stress in aged rats. Neuroendocrinology, 65,
- Dhabhar, F.S., McEwen, B.S. and Spencer, R.L. Adaptation to prolonged
or repeated stress—comparison between rat strains showing intrinsic
differences in reactivity to acute stress. Neuroendocrinology, 65, 360-368,
- McEwen, B.S., Biron, C.A., Brunson, K.W., Bulloch, K., Chambers, W.H.,
Dhabhar, F.S., Goldfarb, R.H., Kitson, R.P., Miller, A.H., Spencer,
R.L. and J.Weiss. The role of adrenocorticoids as modulators of immune
function in health and disease: neural, endocrine, and immune interactions.
Brain Res Rev, 23, 79-133, 1997.
- Dhabhar, F.S., Miller, A.H., McEwen, B.S. and Spencer, R.L. Stress-induced
changes in blood leukocyte distribution: role of adrenal steroid hormones.
J Immunol, 157, 1638-1644, 1996.
- Spencer, R.L., Miller, A.H., Moday, H., McEwen, B.S., Blanchard, R.J.,
Blanchard, D.C. and Sakai, R.R. Chronic social stress produced reductions
in available splenic type II corticosteroid receptor binding and plasma
corticosteroid binding globulin levels. Psychoneuroendo, 21, 95-109,
- Fleshner, M., Spencer, R.L., Deak, T., Watkins, L.R. and Maier, S.F.
A long-term increase in basal levels of corticosterone and a decrease
in corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) following acute stressor exposure.
Endocrinology, 136, 5336-5342, 1995.
- Dhabhar, F.S., Miller, A.H., McEwen, B.S. and Spencer, R.L. Effects
of stress on immune cell distribution—dynamics and hormonal mechanisms.
J Immunol, 154, 5511-5527, 1995.
- O'Steen, W.K., Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Analysis of severe photoreceptor
loss and Morris water maze performance in aged rats. Behav Brain Res,
68, 151-158, 1995.
- Spencer, R.L., O'Steen, W.K. and McEwen, B.S. Water maze performance
of aged Sprague-Dawley rats in relation to retinal morphological measures.
Behav Brain Res, 68, 139-150, 1995.
- Orange, J.S., Salazar-Mather, T.P., Opal, S.M., Spencer, R.L., Miller,
A.H., McEwen, B.S. and Biron, C.A. Mechanisms of Il-12-mediated toxicities
during experimental viral infections: role of TNF and glucocorticoids.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, 181, 901-914, 1995.
- Dhabhar, F.S., Miller, A.H., McEwen, B.S. and Spencer, R.L. Differential
activation of adrenal-steroid receptors in neural and immune tissues
of Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, and Lewis Rats. J. Neuroimmunology,
56, 77-90, 1995.
- Blanchard, D.C., Spencer, R.L., Weiss, S.M., Blanchard, R.J., McEwen,
B.S. and Sakai, R.R. Visible burrow system as a model of chronic social
stress: behavioral and neuroendocrine correlates. Psychoneuroendocrinology,
20, 117-134, 1995.
- Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Hassett, J., Kim, C., Rhee, R., Cuirea,
D., Dhabhar, F., McEwen, B. and Stein, M. Effects of selective type
I and II adrenal steroid receptor agonists on immune cell distribution.
Endocrinology, 135, 1934-1944, 1994.
- McEwen, B.S., Cameron, H., Chao, H.M., Gould, E., Luine, V., Magarinos,
A.M., Pavlides, C., Spencer, R.L., Watanabe, Y. and Woolley, C. Resolving
a mystery: progress in understanding the function of adrenal steroid
receptors in hippocampus. Progress in Brain Research, 100, 149-155,
- Dhabhar, F.S., Miller, A.H., Stein, M., McEwen, B.S. and Spencer,
R.L. Diurnal and acute stress-induced changes in distribution of peripheral
blood leukocyte subpopulations. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 8, 66-79,
- Chao, H.M., Spencer, R.L., Frankfurt, M and McEwen, B.S. The effects
of aging and hormonal manipulations on amyloid precursor protein APP695
mRNA expression in the rat hippocampus. J Neuroendo, 6, 517-521, 1994.
- Akompong, T., Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Cytosolic phospholipase
C activity: II. relationship to concanavalin A-induced phosphatidylinositol-turnover
in splenocytes. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 56,409-417, 1994.
- Akompong, T., Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Cytosolic phospholipase
C activity: I. evidence for coupling with cytosolic guanine nucleotide-binding
protein, Gi-alpha. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 56,397-408, 1994.
- Akompong, T., Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Glucocorticoids inhibit
soluble phospholipase C activity and cytosolic Gi a
immunoreactivity in spleen. Endocrinology, 133, 1963-1970, 1993.
- Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Husain, A., Rhee, R., McEwen, B.S., and
Stein, M. Differential expression of type I adrenal steroid receptors
in immune tissues is associated with tissue specific regulation of type
II receptors by aldosterone. Endocrinology, 133, 2133-2140, 1993.
- Spencer, R.L., Miller, A.H., Moday, H., Stein, M. and McEwen, B.S.
Diurnal differences in basal and acute stress levels of type I and type
II adrenal steroid receptor activation in neural and immune tissues.
Endocrinology, 133, 1941-1950, 1993.
- Dhabhar, F.S., McEwen, B.S. and Spencer, R.L. Stress response, adrenal
steroid receptor levels and corticosteroid-binding globulin —
a comparison between Sprague-Dawley, Fischer 344 and Lewis rats. Brain
Research, 616, 89-98, 1993.
- Luine, V.N., Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Effects of chronic corticosterone
ingestion on spatial memory performance and hippocampal serotonergic
function. Brain Research, 616, 65-70, 1993.
- Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Pulera, M., Kang, S., McEwen, B.S. and
Stein, M. Adrenal steroid receptor activation in rat brain and pituitary
following dexamethasone: implications for the dexamethasone suppression
test. Biological Psychiatry, 32, 850-869, 1992.
- Chao, H.M., Spencer, R.L., Sakai, R.R. and McEwen, B.S. The expression
of growth- associated protein GAP-43 mRNA in the rat hippocampus in
response to adrenalectomy and aging. Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences,
3, 529-535, 1992.
- Woolley, C.S., Gould, E., Sakai, R.R., Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S.
Effects of aldosterone or RU28362 treatment on adrenalectomy-induced
cell death in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat. Brain Research, 554,
- Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Kim, C., McEwen, B.S. and Stein, M. Adrenal
steroid receptor activation in vivo and immune function. American Journal
of Physiology, 261, E126-E131, 1991.
- Spencer, R.L., Miller, A.H., Stein, M. and McEwen, B.S. Corticosterone
regulation of type I and type II adrenal steroid receptors in brain,
pituitary, and immune tissue. Brain Research, 549, 236-246, 1991.
- Owen, T.L., Spencer, R.L. and Duckles, S.P. Effect of age on cold
acclimation in rats: metabolic and behavioral responses. American Journal
of Physiology, 260, R284-R289, 1991.
- Young, E.A., Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Changes at multiple levels
of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis following repeated electrically
induced seizures. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 15, 165-172, 1990.
- Spencer, R.L. and McEwen, B.S. Adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
axis to chronic ethanol stress. Neuroendocrinology, 52, 481-489, 1990.
- Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Stein, M. and McEwen, B.S. Adrenal steroid
receptor binding in spleen and thymus after stress or dexamethasone.
American Journal of Physiology, 259, E405-E412, 1990.
- Gannon, M.N., Spencer, R.L., Lundbland, J.R., McEwen, B.S. and Roberts,
J.L. Pharmacological characteristics of type II glucocorticoid binding
sites in AtT20 pituitary cell culture. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry,
36, 83-88, 1990.
- Spencer, R.L., Young, E., Choo, P. and McEwen, B.S. Adrenal steroid
type I and type II receptor binding: estimates of in vivo receptor number,
occupancy, and activation with varying level of steroid. Brain Research,
514, 37-48, 1990.
- Spencer, R.L. and Burks, T.F. Alteration of thermoregulatory set point
with opioid agonists. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics,
252, 696-705, 1990.
- Spencer, R.L., Hruby, V.J. and Burks, T.F. Body temperature response
profiles for selective mu, delta, and kappa opioid agonists in restrained
and unrestrained rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics,
246, 92-101, 1988.
- Spencer, R.L., Deupree, D., Hsiao, S., Mosberg, H.I., Hruby, V., Burks,
T.F. and Porreca, F. Centrally-administered opioid selective agonists
inhibit drinking in the rat. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior,
25, 77-82, 1986.
- Marques, P.R., Spencer, R.L. Burks, T.F. and McDougal, J.N. Behavioral
thermoregulation, core temperature, and motor activity: simultaneous
quantitative assessment in rats after dopamine and prostaglandin E1.
Behavioral Neuroscience, 98, 858-867, 1984.
- Hsiao, S. and Spencer, R.L. Analysis of licking responses in rats:
effects of cholecystokinin and bombesin. Behavioral Neuroscience, 97,
Book Chapters, Review Articles and Published Lectures
- Spencer, R.L. and Bland, S. Hippocampal neurons. In Encyclopedia of
Stress, 2nd edition, ed. by Frink. Elsevier, London, 2007.[pdf]
- Spencer, R.L., Kalman, B.A. and Dhabhar, F.S. Role of endogenous glucocorticoids
in immune system function: regulation as well as counterregulation.
In Handbook of Physiology. Coping with the Environment: Neural and Endocrine
Mechanisms, ed. by B.S. McEwen, Section 7, Volume IV, pp.381-424, Oxford
University Press, Oxford, 2001.
- Spencer, R.L. and Hutchison, K.E. Alcohol, aging and the stress response.
Alcohol Research & Health, 23, 272-283, 2000.
- Miller, A.H. and Spencer, R.L. Immune system and central nervous system
interactions. In Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry/VI, 6th edition,
ed. by H.I. Kaplan and B.J. Sadock, pp. 112-127, Williams and Wilkins,
- McEwen, B.S., Cameron, H., Chao, H.M., Gould, E., Luine, V., Magarinos,
A.M., Pavlides, C., Spencer, R.L., Watanabe, Y., Woolley, C. Resolving
a mystery: progress in understanding the function of adrenal steroid
receptors in hippocampus. In Progress in Brain Research, vol. 100, pp.
149-155, edited by Floyd E. Bloom, Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1994.
- Spencer, R. Exploring brain interactions with the immune system: corticosteroids
and their receptors. Advances, 10, 33-40, 1994. [Transcription of lecture
delivered to the Boston Behavioral Immunology Study Group, May 10, 1994]
- Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., McEwen, B.S. and Stein, M. Depression,
adrenal steroids, and the immune system. Ann Med, 25, 481-487, 1993.
- McEwen, B.S., Sakai, R.R. and Spencer, R.L. Adrenal steroid effects
on the brain: versatile hormones with good and bad effects. In Hormonally
Induced Changes in Mind and Brain, ed. by J. Schulkin, pp. 157-189,
Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, 1993.
- McEwen, B.S., Chao, H.M., Gannon, M.N. and Spencer, R.L. Characterization
of brain adrenal steroid receptors and their involvement in the stress
response. In Stress: Neurobiology and Neuroendocrinology, ed. by M.
Brown, G.F. Koob and C. Rivier, pp. 275-292, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New
- Spencer, R.L., Miller, A.H., Sakai, R. and McEwen, B.S. Neuroendocrinology
of stress and aging. In Aging of the Brain: Cellular and Molecular Aspects
of Brain Aging and Alzheimer's Disease, ed. by T. Nagatsu & O. Hayaishi,
pp. 37-51, Japan Scientific Societies Press and Karger, Tokyo, 1990.
- Spencer, R.L., Miller, A.H., Young, E.A. and McEwen, B.S. Stress induced
changes in the brain: implications for aging. In Stress and the Aging
Brain, ed. by G. Nappi et al, pp. 17-29, Raven Press, 1990.
- McEwen, B., Chao, H., Spencer, R., Brinton, R., MacIsaac, L., and
Harrelson, A. Corticosteroid receptors in brain: relationship of receptors
to effects in stress and aging. In the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal
Axis Revisited, ed. by W.F. Ganong, M.F., Dallman and J.L. Roberts,
pp.394-401, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1987.