Chadley K. Dawson, Randall C. O'Reilly, and James L. McClelland.
This describes version 3.0 of the PDP++ neural network simulation software.
Manual revision date: 2 May 2003.
As the field of connectionist modeling has grown, so has the need for a comprehensive simulation environment for the development and testing of connectionist models. Our goal in developing PDP++ has been to integrate several powerful software development and user interface tools into a general purpose simulation environment that is both user friendly and user extensible. The simulator is built in the C++ programming language, and incorporates a state of the art script interpreter with the full expressive power of C++. The graphical user interface is built with the Interviews toolkit, and allows full access to the data structures and processing modules out of which the simulator is built. We have constructed several useful graphical modules for easy interaction with the structure and the contents of neural networks, and we've made it possible to change and adapt many things. At the programming level, we have set things up in such a way as to make user extensions as painless as possible. The programmer creates new C++ objects, which might be new kinds of units or new kinds of processes; once compiled and linked into the simulator, these new objects can then be accessed and used like any other.
The system is very powerful, and as with all powerful things, one needs to learn how to handle it to get the most out of it. But the system is also engineered for ease of use by the beginner. Classic programs (such as backpropagation) and classic example simulations (like learning XOR) have been set up so the user can run them and explore their behavior with a few key strokes and mouse clicks. It's easy to set up new examples and modify various parameters and explore the effects. There are libraries of different unit and process types, so it is easy for you to put together novel simulations on your own.
This manual provides a complete overview of the PDP++ system, starting from the simplest kind of uses and progressing to a full description of all of the features so you can get the most out of the system. We strongly recommend reading the section 3 Conceptual Overview chapter in its entirety, and then stepping through the section 4 Tutorial Introduction (using Bp) chapter to get some hands-on familiarity with the system. If the software is not yet installed on your system, you must follow the instructions in the section 2 Installation Guide chapter to install it. The remainder of the manual can be used as a reference as needed, or read through for a deeper understanding of how things really work.
Before you'll be able to use this system, or even understand this manual, you will need some background. First, you'll need to have a working understanding of the Unix operating system, the X11 window system, and your window manager (Motif, OpenWindows, or whatever you use). You'll probably also need to know something about connectionist/neural network simulation models. For general background, consider Chapters 1-4 of Parallel Distributed Processing, Volume 1 (Rumelhart, McClelland, and the PDP Research Group, 1986). While section BP of this tutorial presents back propagation as a procedure, it does not fully motivate it or discuss the reasons for its importance; for this we refer you to Chapter 8 of PDP Volume 1, to Chapter 4 of Explorations in Parallel Distributed Processing (McClelland and Rumelhart, 1988) or to Rumelhart, Hinton and Williams (1986).
New for 2.0: The PDP++ software provides the basis for a large
number of cognitive-neuroscience oriented simulations in the new book
"Computational Explorations in Cognitive Neuroscience: Understanding the
Mind by Simulating the Brain", by O'Reilly and Munakata, MIT Press, 2000
(September). These simulations use the
leabra++ algorithm, which
is now provided with the PDP++ software in the
directory. The simulations can be downloaded for free from either the
MIT Press website (`http://www.mitpress.com' -- search for the book
by title or authors) or from a link off of O'Reilly's we page at
`http://psych.colorado.edu/~oreilly'. Of course, to get the most
out of them, it is recommended that you purchase the book ;).
A mailing list is available for users of PDP++ to share ideas and help each other solve problems. This list will be monitored by the authors of the PDP++ software, but ABSOLUTELY NO GUARANTEE or even SUGGESTION of technical assistance is implied by the existence of this list. We have limited resources and are making the software available as a public service. Please respect this by not asking for help from the authors directly. To be added or removed from the mailing list, and/or to view archives of previous messages, see the instructions at the website, `http://psych.colorado.edu/~oreilly/PDP++/PDP++.html'.
For bug reports (which we will accumulate and fix), write to `firstname.lastname@example.org'. Again, there is no guarantee that your bug will be fixed. However, sending in a complete description of the actions that lead to the bug so we can reproduce it is essential for anything to be done to fix it. Also see the `TODO' files in the top level and various sub-directories (ta and css) for things we are planning to do.