CT4521 notes 09/10


Fallacies:
1. The Fallacy of Precision: This is when one uses slight statistical 
differences to prove that they have an advantage, even when the evidence is not
statistically significant.  For example, a study was done to see how different 
cigarettes compared on the levels of chemicals in them.  Most of the levels were
identical or very similar.  The last cigarette on the list was Old Gold, they 
had slightly, but not statistically significantly, lower levels of nicotine.  
They began using the claim in their advertising that they had the lowest amount
of nicotine, which is true, but not going to make any difference in reality.

2. The Slippery Slope Fallacy: This is when one uses the argument that a single
event will lead to a chain of events that will have negative consequences.  For
example, one might argue that not requiring children to say the pledge of 
allegiance in school will not provide the opportunity for them to learn it, 
which will lead to them to be poor citizens and eventually society will fall 
apart and there will be anarchy.  This is absurd logic, requiring the belief 
that each item on the way to anarchy came about because children were not taught
the pledge of allegiance in school.

Class Discussion:
-What is Traditional AI? Information processing.  Input is processed and output
is generated.
-What is Embodied Cognitive Science?  Based on interaction with environment.  AI
doesn't take environment into account.  Processes are not coupled specifically,
only loosely.  Reacting to environment.  6-legged creature: leg motors do not 
talk to one another, only react to changes in environment, even those changes 
that are caused by the other legs.
-Traditionally, people think of intelligence happening in the brain.  People 
don't think of the body.
-In real humans, environment can be used for short-term memory.  Humans don't 
"represent" a red block when they can just look at it.

-Autonomous Agents-
-They work by themselves (No human interference)
-They adapt to their environment
-They are independent

-Debate on the Autonomy of Computers-
Computers do not have autonomy:
-They are not free from human control (Programming)
-Emergent behaviors are still part of human defined programming
-Cannot perceive and change environment
-Electrical System
Computers do have autonomy:
-Many programs can "think for themselves"
-Behaving systems in their own right
-Act in the real world
-Independent of immediate human control
-Humans also start with some "programming" from parents and society

-Debate on whether  Sternberg's Theory of Thinking Styles falls under 
Traditional AI or Embodied Cognitive Science-
Traditional AI:
-Sternberg uses thinking styles to show how input is processed
-The students that Sternberg refers to are unable to adapt and cope with their 
environments.
Embodied Cognitive Science:
-Organisms do adapt to their environment, by changing their environment.
-Learning styles show that everyone is different.
-Environment must match learning style for learning to take place.

-Both authors are pointing toward environment, which is different from a 
mechanistic system.