CT4521 notes 09/03

September 3, 2003

-       Volvo Fallacy

o      Judge how likely something is to happen

o      The ease with which you can come up with examples gives you and intuitive feeling as to how likely

o      If its easy to think of examples it must be likely

-       Comment about the questions we answered for today

o      Got to ask questions that are answerable

o      Don’t expect a questions like the first one

§       If a term makes no sense... ask a question like,

Š      “What is graduated property, the book says… but it makes no sense”

o      Questions like the second one are what she expects.

§       “We know that… is the case, but what does it mean”

-       Why is intelligence a graduated property

o      Multi-dimensional

o      Not a categorical thing

o      Fluctuates among time and place

-       Briefly discuss three aspects of intelligence that cannot be tested with the Turing Test    

o      What is the Turing Test

§       Question and Answer test

§       Can distinguish between person and computer

Š      Example:

o      When signing up for email the warped word you need to type in to verify that you are a person

§       Computers can’t ‘read’ the warped word

§       Trying to determine sex based on questions asked

§       Point of the test

Š      Can computers be intelligent

Š      How would we know

Š      We have biases

o      More likely to give something that looks like a person more human characteristics

Š      Gets around biases, since you can’t see the other people

§       Spin off

Š      Since early 90’s

Š      Leobniz’s Prize

Š      $100,000 and gold medal to first computer program that is undistinguishable from a person

Š      No one has won yet

Š      Happens every year

Š      Have different programs that enter the contest

Š      Judges talk to each contestant

o      Person or computer

Š      Judges decide whether a person or computer

Š      What ever program gets the most person votes is the year’s winner and gets a bronze medal and $2000

o      Characteristics that can’t be tested

§       Understanding

Š      Comprehension of the symbols you use

Š      Computer will not have a real understanding

§       Creative

Š      Can’t be outside the rules

Š      Can you have a set of rules that are complex enough that you can’t see them

o      So much so that you can’t see the rules that exist simply from looking at the end program

o      Discussion about what is creativity, what is learning

§       We know precisely what ‘program’ went into the computer

Š      Does this mean that it can’t be creative/intelligent

Š      Cog – computer that learns

-       Eliza

o      Program that was trying to mimic therapy in a specific style

o      Answered everything with a question

o      Link so we can play on the web with different programs

-       How do we know Searle understands English

o      Based on the Chinese Room

o      How do we know that what you experience as “blue” is the same as what I experience as “blue” or joy or pain

o      Functionally equivalent to someone who understands namely myself

§       Reasoning by analogy

-       Why does it matter to know whether a computer has real ‘intellegence’

o      Is there a difference

o      What’s wrong with defining intelligence as a human characteristic

-       Chinese room

o      In class thing